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Jellyfish Stings Causes Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention on eMedicineHealth.com Black Widow vs.Brown Recluse A reddish, scaly rash often located over the surfaces of the elbows, knees, scalp, and around or in the ears, navel, genitals or buttocks...The brain.The body.The bedroom.What do you know?Take the Bed Bugs Quiz!

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Barbara J.Drobina, DO is an Emergency Physician in the United States Navy.Dr.Drobina graduated from University of Osteopathic Medicine and Health Sciences, Des Moines, IA.Dr.Drobina completed residency training in Emergency Medicine at Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Portsmouth, VA.Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S.board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology.

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inmate searchDr.Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina.She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.Jellyfish are free-swimming, non-aggressive, gelatinous marine animals surrounded by tentacles.
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These tentacles are covered with sacs (nematocysts) that are filled with poison (venom) that can cause a painful to sometimes life-threatening sting.
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The marine animals included in the "family" are jellyfish, box jellyfish (sea wasps), Portuguese man-of-war, hydroids, anemones, and fire coral.
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Jellyfish are found throughout the world.But, the most deadly are found in the Indo-Pacific and Australian waters.
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Jellyfish are usually found near the surface of the water during times of diminished light, floating in the water column, or after washing up on the beach.

Jellyfish stings are generally accidental - from swimming or wading into a jellyfish or carelessly handling them.GDC fort bend county appraisal district texas.
Some types of jellyfish have reproductive jelly gatherings 8 to 10 days after a full moon, thus there is an increase in the number of jellyfish found at that time.
There are over 200 types of jellyfish (that have been documented).
What was the treatment for your jellyfish sting?Find out what women really need.
Eating Out?Cut Calories, Heartburn Coral is the hard calcareous outer skeleton (exoskeleton) secreted by many types of marine polyps.
The exoskeletons can be very sharp and colorful.Coral reefs are composed of a many different types of polyps that have calcified outer skeletons; reefs can extend for miles and are a favorite place for people to snorkel or scuba dive.
Coral formations occur in tropical and subtropical waters.Because coral formations are rigid and sharp, injury can occur after accidental contact, leaving a small amount of animal protein and calcareous material in the wound.
The small, harmless-appearing cut may quickly develop into an infected wound.
Some corals contain nematocysts (an organ in some marine animals consisting of a minute capsule containing an ejectable thread that causes a sting), which can produce a more significant injury.
Occasionally, a cut or abrasion from the coral will expose the open skin to other pathogens that may be floating in the wate...
With more than 10,000 species in the sea, jellyfish are responsible for the most common human envenomations.
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Stay up to date on the latest health information.Jellyfish stings are relatively common problems for people swimming, wading or diving in seawaters.
The long tentacles trailing from the jellyfish body can discharge thousands of microscopic barbed stingers that release venom into your skin.
Jellyfish stings can vary greatly in severity.Most often they result in immediate pain and red, irritated marks on the skin.
Some jellyfish stings may cause more whole-body (systemic) illness, and in rare cases, jellyfish stings are life-threatening.
Most jellyfish stings get better with home treatment, but severe reactions require emergency medical care.
Marcus EN, et al.Jellyfish stings.http://www.uptodate.com/home/index.html.Accessed May 20, 2011.
Auerbach P.Envenomation by aquatic invertebrates.In: Auerbach P.
, ed.Wilderness Medicine.5th ed.Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby Elsevier; 2007.
http://www.mdconsult.com/books/page.do?eid=4-u1.0-B978-0-323-03228-5..
50078-1&isbn=978-0-323-03228-5&uniqId=254897538-2#4-u1.
0-B978-0-323-03228-5..50078-1.Accessed May 20, 2011.
Isbister GK.Trauma and envenomations from marine fauna.In: Tintinalli JE, et al.
Tintinalli's Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Study Guide.
7th ed.New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2011.
http://www.accessmedicine.com/content.aspx?aID=6379433.Accessed May 20, 2011.
Junghanss T, et al.Medically important venomous animals: Biology, prevention, first aid, and clinical management.
Clinical Infectious Diseases.2006;43:1309.Markenson D, et al.
Part 13: First aid: 2010 American Heart Association and American Red Cross International consensus on first aid science with treatment recommendations.
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The person displays signs of a severe allergic reaction.
The sting is from a box jellyfish.The sting covers more than half an arm or leg.
For more information about severe allergic reaction, see Anaphylaxis .
1.Get the Person Out of the Water Wash the area with seawater to deactivate stinging cells.
Rinse immediately with vinegar.Do not use fresh or tap water, which can reactivate stinging cells.
Continue until you can get medical help.3.Decontaminate and Remove Tentacles Apply vinegar for 30 minutes.
If vinegar is not available, apply shaving cream, soap lather, or paste of sand or mud and seawater.
Scrape with razor or credit card to remove stinging cells.
Use mild hydrocortisone cream or oral antihistamine to relieve itching and swelling.
Use ice packs or over-the-counter pain relievers for welts.
Clean open sores 3 times a day and apply antibiotic ointment.
Bandage if needed.The person may be hospitalized for several days.
Anti-venom will be administered for box jellyfish stings.Fermie, P.
The Illustrated Practical Book of First Aid & Family Health, Lorenz Books, 2005.
Subbarao, I.AMA Handbook of First Aid and Emergency Care, Random House Reference, 2009.
Utox Update, University of Utah College of Pharmacy: "Marine Envenomations.
" Jellyfish Stings Information from eMedicineHealth.© 2011 WebMD, LLC.All rights reserved.
Get first aid information.Whenever.Wherever...with your iPhone, iPad or Android.
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All rights reserved.WebMD does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.
See additional information.By Rod Brouhard, About.com Guide About.com Health's Disease and Condition content is reviewed by our Medical Review Board The tentacles are clearly visible on this sting.
The problem with jellyfish is that they sneak up on their victims.Swimmers are cruising along in the ocean one minute, and feeling the sting of the jellyfish the next.
Jellyfish stings come from cells called nematocysts found the long tentacles that trail the bell-shaped jellyfish and in some species on the bell itself.
These cells inject a protein-based venom.The most dangerous reaction to most jellyfish stings is the possibility of severe allergic reactions.
However, some species of jellyfish have venom strong enough to kill even if you're not allergic.
Stay Safe.As always, safety is the most important step.
Jellyfish tentacles (nematocysts) may still be on the skin.Follow universal precautions and wear personal protective equipment if available.
If the species is known to be box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) or Irukandji (Carukia barnesi), get emergency medical help immediately.
For box jellyfish stings, vinegar may help (see tips).Rinse the tentacles off.
Rinse away the tentacles using hot water if possible (see step 5 for how hot).
If heated water isn't available, use salt water rather than fresh.
Fresh water may worsen the stinging pain.Peel off the tentacles.
Remove any remaining tentacles with a gloved hand, stick, shell or tweezers.
Be careful not to get the tentacles on yourself or on clothing.
Jellyfish tentacles can still sting even after they've been ripped from the body of the jellyfish.
If you use bare hands to pluck tentacles off, you'll most likely get stung on the fingers.
That's also why it's so important to remove them.If you don't the victim will keep getting stung until all the nematocysts are used up.
Watch for anaphylaxis.Anaphylaxis is a severe allergic reaction that can result in: Anaphylaxis can also cause a drop in blood pressure known as anaphylactic shock.
Immerse the stung area in hot water.How hot is hot?There isn't much evidence that water under 102 degrees is going to help, and a lot of evidence that water over 122 degrees is extremely effective.
Since it's unlikely you'll have a thermometer to accurately gauge the temperature of water in a shower or a hot bath, the general rule is to have the victim either shower or immerse the sting in the hottest water he or she can stand.
Work up to the heat and be careful not to scald (burn) the victim.Ibuprofen and acetaminophen will help relieve pain.
Ice or heat may also help.Mild itching may be helped with diphenhydramine.
The Portuguese or Pacific man-of-war and the bluebottle are technically not jellyfish, but treatment is the same.
Remove all tentacles from the sting site and rinse thoroughly, preferably with hot water.
Watch for confusion, chest pain, and weakness.Always seek emergency medical treatment for these.
Man-of-war stings can be very serious.Urine will not work on a jellyfish sting.
Some victims have reported pain relief, but urine does not always have enough acid to neutralize the venom.
The examples of urine working to reduce pain probably would have had the same or better response from rinsing with sea water or hot water.
Use hot water whenever possible.Plain white distilled vinegar (acetic acid) like you would find in your kitchen has long been the standard first aid treatment for jellyfish stings.
Its use has become controversial in the last few years and several studies leave us questioning whether vinegar really works.
Vinegar is still recommended for use on box jellyfish stings, so if it's available, I'd give it a try.
Atkinson, P.R.T., et al."Is hot water immersion an effective treatment for marine envenomation?.
" Emerg Med Journal.2006 July; 23(7): 503:508 Jellyfish Stings and Man of War Stings - Practical Chemistry to Treat Jelly...
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Jellyfish (also known as jellies or sea jellies or a stage of the life cycle of Medusozoa) are free-swimming members of the phylum Cnidaria.
Medusa is another word for jellyfish, and refers to any free-swimming jellyfish life stages among animals in the phylum.
Jellyfish have multiple morphologies that represent cnidarian classes including the Scyphozoa (over 200 species), Staurozoa (about 50 species), Cubozoa (about 20 species), and Hydrozoa (about 1000–1500 species that make jellyfish and many more that do not).
[1][2] Jellyfish are found in every ocean, from the surface to the deep sea.
Some hydrozoan jellyfish, or hydromedusae, inhabit freshwater; freshwater jellyfish are less than an inch (2.
5 cm) in diameter, are colorless and do not sting.
Large, often colorful, jellyfish are common in coastal zones worldwide.
Jellyfish have roamed the seas for at least 500 million years,[3] and possibly 700 million years or more, making them the oldest multi-organ animal.
[4] In its broadest sense, the term jellyfish may also generally refer to members of the phylum Ctenophora.
Although not closely related to cnidarian jellyfish, ctenophores are also free-swimming planktonic carnivores, are generally transparent or translucent, and exist in shallow to deep portions of all the world's oceans.
More specific names for the groups of Cnidarian jellyfish are scyphomedusae, stauromedusae, cubomedusae, and hydromedusae.
These may relate to an entire order or class.[5] The word jellyfish (which has been in common usage for more than a century)[6] is used to denote several different kinds of cnidarians, all of which have a basic body structure that resembles an umbrella, including scyphozoans, staurozoans (stalked jellyfish), hydrozoans, and cubozoans (box jellyfish).
Some textbooks and websites refer to scyphozoans as "true jellyfish".
[7][8] As jellyfish are not even vertebrates, let alone true fish, the usual word jellyfish is considered by some to be a misnomer, and American public aquariums have popularized use of the terms jellies or sea jellies instead.
[9] In its broadest usage, some scientists include members of the phylum Ctenophora (comb jellies) when they are referring to jellyfish.
[10] Other scientists prefer to use the more all-encompassing term "gelatinous zooplankton", when referring to these, together with other soft-bodied animals in the water column.
[11] A group of jellyfish is sometimes called a bloom or a swarm.[12] "Bloom" is usually used for a large group of jellyfish that gather in a small area, but may also have a time component, referring to seasonal increases, or numbers beyond what was expected.
[13] Another collective name for a group of jellyfish is a smack,[14] although this term is not commonly used by scientists who study jellyfish.
Jellyfish are "bloomy" by nature of their life cycles, being produced by their benthic polyps usually in the spring when sunshine and plankton increase, so they appear rather suddenly and often in large numbers, even when an ecosystem is in balance.
[15] Using "swarm" usually implies some kind of active ability to stay together, which a few species such as Aurelia, the moon jelly, demonstrate.
[16] Most jellyfish have a second stage to their life cycle, the planula larvae phase, following the initial egg and sperm phase.
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Although this is a short lived stage for jellyfish, it is an important phase when the fertilized eggs that had previously undergone embryonic development, hatch, and planulae emerge from the females mouth or brood pouch and are off on their own.
[17] Most jellyfish do not have specialized digestive, osmoregulatory, central nervous, respiratory, or circulatory systems.
The manubrium is a stalk-like structure hanging down from the centre of the underside, with the mouth at its tip.
This opens into the gastrovascular cavity, where digestion takes place and nutrients are absorbed.
It is joined to the radial canals which extend to the margin of the bell.
[18] Jellyfish do not need a respiratory system since their skin is thin enough that the body is oxygenated by diffusion.
They have limited control over movement, but can use their hydrostatic skeleton to navigate through contraction-pulsations of the bell-like body; some species actively swim most of the time, while others are mostly passive.
[citation needed] The Jellyfish body consist of over 95% water; most of their umbrella mass is a gelatinous material—the jelly—called mesoglea which is surrounded by two layers of protective skin.
The top layer is called the epidermis, and the inner layer is referred to as gastrodermis, which lines the gut.
All jellyfish do not have a brain nor a central nervous system, but employ a loose network of nerves, located in the epidermis, which is called a "nerve net".
A jellyfish detects various stimuli including the touch of other animals via this nerve net, which then transmits impulses both throughout the nerve net and around a circular nerve ring, through the rhopalial lappet, located at the rim of the jellyfish body, to other nerve cells.
Another counter to the "brainless jellyfish" hypothesis[clarification needed] is that some species explicitly adapt to tidal flux to control their location.
In Roscoe Bay, jellyfish ride the current at ebb tide until they hit a gravel bar, and then descend below the current.
They remain in still waters waiting for the tide to rise, ascending and allowing it to sweep them back into the bay.
They monitor salinity to avoid fresh water from mountain snowmelt, again by diving until they find enough salt.
[4] Some jellyfish also have ocelli: light-sensitive organs that do not form images but which can detect light, and are used to determine up from down, responding to sunlight shining on the water's surface.
These are generally pigment spot ocelli, which have some cells (not all) pigmented.
Certain species of jellyfish, such as the Box jellyfish, have been revealed to be more advanced than their counterparts.
The Box jellyfish has 24 eyes, two of which are capable of seeing color, and four parallel brains[clarification needed] that act in competition, supposedly making it one of the only creatures to have a 360 degree view of its environment.
[19] It is suggested that the two eyes that contain cornea and retina are attached to a central nervous system which enables the four brains to process images.
It is unknown how this works, as the creature has a unique central nervous system.
[4][20] The eyes are suspended on stalks with heavy crystals on one end, acting like a gyroscope to orient the eyes skyward.
They look upward to navigate from roots in mangrove swamps to the open lagoon and back, watching for the mangrove canopy, where they feed.
[4] The lion's mane jellyfish Cyanea capillata is one of the larger species of jellyfish.
Jellyfish range from about one millimeter in bell height and diameter to nearly two meters in bell height and diameter; the tentacles and mouth parts usually extend beyond this bell dimension.
The smallest jellyfish are the peculiar creeping jellyfish in the genera Staurocladia and Eleutheria, which have bell disks from 0.
5 mm to a few mm diameter, with short tentacles that extend out beyond this, on which these tiny jellyfish crawl around on seaweed or the bottoms of rocky pools[21].
Many of these tiny creeping jellyfish cannot be seen in the field without a hand lens or microscope; they can reproduce asexually by splitting in half (called fission).
Other very small jellyfish, which have bells about one mm, are the hydromedusae of many species that have just been released from their parent polyps[22]; some of these live only a few minutes before shedding their gametes in the plankton and then dying, while others will grow in the plankton for weeks or months.
The hydromedusae Cladonema radiatum and Cladonema californicum are also very small, living for months, yet never growing beyond a few mm in bell height and diameter[23].
Another small species of jellyfish is the Australian Irukandji, which is about the size of a fingernail.
[4] The lion's mane jellyfish, Cyanea capillata, was long-cited as the largest jellyfish, and arguably the longest animal in the world, with fine, thread-like tentacles that may extend up to 36.
5 metres (120 ft) long (though most are nowhere near that large).[24][25][26] They have a moderately painful, but rarely fatal, sting.
Claims that this jellyfish may be the longest animal in the world are likely exaggerated; some other planktonic cnidarians called siphonophores may typically be tens of meters long and seem a more legitimate candidate for longest animal.
The increasingly common giant Nomura's jellyfish, Nemopilema nomurai, found in some, but not all years in the waters of Japan, Korea and China in summer and autumn is probably a much better candidate for "largest jellyfish", since the largest Nomura's jellyfish in late autumn can reach 200 centimetres (79 in) in bell (body) diameter and about 200 kilograms (440 lb) in weight, with average specimens frequently reaching 90 centimetres (35 in) in bell diameter and about 150 kilograms (330 lb) in weight.
[27][28] The large bell mass of the giant Nomura's jellyfish[29] can dwarf a diver and is nearly always much greater than the up-to-100 centimetres (39 in) bell diameter Lion's Mane.
[30] The rarely-encountered deep-sea jellyfish Stygiomedusa gigantea is another solid candidate for "largest jellyfish", with its thick, massive bell to 100 centimetres (39 in) wide, and four thick, "strap-like" oral arms extending up to 6 metres (20 ft) in length,[31] very different than the typical fine, threadlike tentacles that rim the umbrella of more-typical-looking jellyfish, including the Lion's Mane.
Most jellyfish undergo two distinct life history stages (body forms) during their life cycle.
The first is the polypoid stage.After fertilization and initial growth, a larval form, called the planula, develops.
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The planula is a small larva covered with cilia.It settles onto a firm surface and develops into a polyp.The polyp is generally a small stalk with a mouth surrounded by upward-facing tentacles like miniatures of the closely related anthozoan polyps (sea anemones and corals), also of the phylum Cnidaria.This polyp may be sessile, living on the bottom or on similar substrata such as floats or boat-bottoms, or it may be free-floating or attached to tiny bits of free-living plankton[32] or rarely, fish[33] or other invertebrates.

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